This report is based on an extensive review of the academic and practitioner literature on TJ, as well as five country case studies conducted in 2014: Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), Cambodia, Guatemala, Morocco, and Uganda. The case studies were chosen with a view both to capturing patterns and to comparing differences in donor approaches to TJ.

More than one hundred donor and civil society actors were interviewed, and quotes from those interviews are highlighted in this report. Data on funding for international assistance was drawn primarily from grant-level data reported by OECD member states from 2000 to 2012. While not all of this guidance will be relevant to every donor, the hope is that there is applicable wisdom.

This report was written by Paige Arthur and Christalla Yakinthou. It draws upon original research conducted by Paige Arthur, Tania Bernath, Anita Isaacs, Laura McGrew, and Christalla Yakinthou. We also thank Naomi Roht-Arriaza, Refik Hodzic, and Riva Kantowitz for advisory support. The report is part of a larger project, “Needs Assessment and Public Toolkit Development for Transitional Justice Programs,” that Public Action Research conducted with a grant from the U.S. Department of State during 2013 and 2014.

We gratefully acknowledge the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor of the U.S. Department of State and the International Coalition of Sites of Conscience for their general support for this project, as well as IREX for its support of the Morocco case study.

Country Case Studies

Bosnia and Herzegovina

  • Association TJ, Accountability, and Remembrance in Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Association of Women from Prijedor “IZVOR”
  • Balkan Investigative Reporting Network (BIRN)
  • Center for Nonviolent Action
  • Center for Torture Victims
  • Civil Society Promotion Center
  • EU Delegation
  • Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Republika Srpska
  • International Commission for Missing Persons (ICMP)
  • Missing Persons Institute (MPI)
  • Mothers of Srebrenica and Zepa Enclaves (Pokret Majke enklava Srebrenice i Žepe)
  • NED
  • Netherlands Embassy
  • Network for Peace Building (Mreža Mira)
  • Republican Organization of Families of Detained Soldiers and Missing Civilians of RS (Republička organizacija porodica zarobljenih boraca i nestalih civila RS-a)
  • Swedish International Development Cooperation (Sida)
  • Swiss Embassy
  • Track Impunity Always (TRIAL)
  • UK Embassy
  • UNDP
  • Women to Women (Zene Zenama)
  • Youth Communication Center (OKC)
  • Youth Initiative for Human Rights (YIHR)


  • Cambodian Human Rights and Development Association (CHRDA)
  • Asia International Justice Initiative/East-West Center (AIJI/EWC)
  • Cambodian Defenders Project (CDP)
  • Cambodian Human Rights Action Committee (CHRAC)
  • Documentation Center-Cambodia (DC-Cam)
  • Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC): Civil Party Lead Co-Lawyers Section; Office of the Co-Prosecutors; Public Affairs Section; Victim’s Support Section
  • European Union/CEC/EDF
  • French Embassy
  • French Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  • German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
  • Civil Peace Service/German Corporation for International Cooperation (GIZ)
  • Human Rights Resource Center (former AIJI/EWC)
  • ICTJ (former staff)
  • Kdei Karuna
  • Netherlands MFA
  • New Zealand Embassy, Bangkok
  • Open Society Justice Initiative (OSJI)
  • Swedish Embassy
  • Transcultural Psychosocial Organisation (TPO)
  • UK Embassy
  • US Embassy
  • US State Department
  • Youth for Peace


  • Archivo Histórico de la Policía Nacional (AHPN)
  • Bufete Jurídico de Derechos Humanos
  • Centro de Acción Legal en Derechos Humanos (CALDH)
  • Centro de Analisís Forense y Ciencias Aplicadas (CAFCA)
  • Coordinadora Nacional de Viudas de Guatemala (CONAVIGUA)
  • Familiares de Detenidos y Desaparecidos en Guatemala (FAMDEGUA)
  • FLACSO Guatemala
  • Fundación de Antropología Forense de Guatemala (FAFG)
  • Fundación Myrna Mack
  • Grupo de Apoyo Mutuo (GAM)
  • Instituto de Estudios Comparados en Ciencias Penales de Guatemala (ICCPG)
  • Instituto Internacional del Aprendizaje para la Reconciliación Social (IIARS)
  • Movimiento Pro Justicia
  • Norwegian Embassy
  • Oficina de Derechos Humanos del Arzobipado de Guatemala (ODHAG)
  • Procuraduría de Derechos Humanos (PDH)
  • Spanish Embassy
  • Swedish Embassy
  • Unidad de Protección a Defensores y Defensoras de Derechos Humanos, Guatemala (UDEFEGUA)
  • United Nations Development Program (UNDP)
  • United Nations Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Expression
  • US Embassy


  • Amazigh Theater, Al Hoceima
  • Association ADALA
  • Association Initiative Urbaine
  • Association Marocaine des Droits de l’Homme (AMDH)
  • Association Médicale de Réhabilitation des Victimes de Torture (AMRVT)
  • Avocats Sans Frontières
  • Casamemoire
  • Center for Cross-Cultural Learning
  • Conseil National des Droits de l’Homme (CNDH; multiple units)
  • Conseil Regional des Droits de l’Homme-Al Hoceima (CRDH-Al Hoceima)
  • Cultivation of Roses Project
  • EU Delegation
  • Fondation Caisse de Depôt et Gestion (FCDG)
  • Forum Marocain pour la Justice et la Vérité (FMVJ)
  • Human Rights Watch (HRW)
  • ICTJ (former staff)
  • Local Coordinating Committee of the Community Reparations Program for Hay Mohammadi (former staff)
  • Mediterranean Youth Council for Development
  • National Endowment for Democracy (NED)
  • Netherlands Embassy
  • Network of Development Associations of the Al Hoceima Region (RADRA)
  • Search for Common Ground
  • US Embassy


  • African Network for the Prevention and Protection of Child Abuse and Neglect (ANPPCAN)
  • African Youth Initiative Network (AYINET)
  • Aid Africa
  • Alliance for Peacebuilding (AfP)
  • Avocats Sans Frontières (ASF)
  • CARE
  • Center for Global Health and Peacebuilding
  • Center for Governance, Peace, and Security
  • Center for Reparations and Rehabilitation (CRR)
  • Child Voice International (CVI)
  • Community Action Project/Uganda Youth Coalition
  • Democratic Governance Facility (DGF)
  • Diakonia
  • Gideon Foundation
  • Human Rights Network Uganda (HURINET)
  • ICC in Uganda
  • ICC Trust Fund for Victims
  • ICTJ
  • Irish Embassy
  • Justice and Reconciliation Project (JRP)
  • Justice Law and Order Section (JLOS)
  • Ker Kai Acholi
  • MacArthur Foundation
  • Netherlands Development Cooperation
  • Northern Uganda Transitional Justice Working Group (NUTJWG)
  • Refugee Law Project (RLP)
  • Trust Africa
  • Uganda Fund
  • Uganda Victims Foundation (UVF)
  • Uganda Women’s Action Program
  • UNDP
  • UN Women
  • Unam
  • US State Department

 End Notes

1 See UN Security Council, The rule of law and transitional justice in conflict and post-conflict societies: Report of the Secretary-General, S/2011/634* (October 12, 2011). For scholarly approaches, see (among others) Pablo de Greiff, “The Role of Apologies in National Reconciliation Processes: On Making Trustworthy Institutions Trusted,” in Mark Gibney, ed., The Age of Apology: Facing Up to the Past (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008); and David Crocker, “Civil Society and Transitional Justice” in Robert K. Fullinwider, ed., Civil Society, Democracy, and Civic Renewal (Rowman & Littlefield, 1999).

2 UNDP, “Donors’ Civil Society Strategies and Partnership Modalities: A Resource Guide” (March 2012).

3 This typology is drawn from David Crocker, “Civil Society and Transitional Justice” in Robert K. Fullinwider, ed., Civil Society, Democracy, and Civic Renewal (Rowman & Littlefield, 1999): 375–401; and David Backer, “Civil Society and Transitional Justice: Possibilities, Patterns and Prospects,” Journal of Human Rights 2, no. 3 (2003): 297–313.

4 Data for the ECCC is from “ECCC Financial Outlook,” June 30, 2012. Data for civil society actors is from the TJ International Assistance Database, which is drawn from the OECD’s Creditor Reporting System (CRS) data from 2000 to 2012 . Note that funds for international and hybrid tribunals often follow separate funding tracks to other development assistance, and thus are not always included in data reported to the OECD (this face has been taken to account in the data). Owing to gaps in the data, figures are indicative rather than exact.

5 Data is from the TJ International Assistance Database.

6 Data on the SCSL is from Marieke Wierda and Anthony Triolo, “Resources” in Luc Reydams, Jan Wouters, and Cedric Ryngaert, International Prosecutors (Oxford University Press, 2012), 113–70. Data on the TRC is from Priscilla Hayner, Unspeakable Truths: Confronting State Terror and Atrocity, 2nd ed. (Routledge, 2010), Appendix 2, Chart 4. Data on the reparations program is from the TJ International Assistance Database.

7 Data on reparations per victim from IOM Web site, “Sierra Leone Victims Receive Compensation”. Data on average salary for international prosecuting attorney from Antonio Cassese, “Report on the Special Court of Sierra Leone” (December 12, 2006), 58; and from UN salary band tables for professional staff at P4/P5 level.

Website Image Credits